The 20th century was a period of outstanding scientific achievements. Breakthroughs answered ancient questions: the source of heredity in the DNA molecule and the explanation of earthquakes, volcanoes, and other geological mysteries through plate tectonics. There was an expansion in our estimation of the size our universe from thousands to billions of light years and at the same time an implosion into the weird quantum features of the subatomic world and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Time and space itself were found to be relative within the counterintuitive domains of Einstein’s relativity. These themes and the breakthroughs that resulted are explored in a manner accessible and interesting to all students, even those with minimal scientific backgrounds. Advanced mathematics isrequired. Emphasis is placed on a descriptive understanding of the themes and their implications to society and our daily lives.